This module focuses on the political ideas, actions and outcomes of parties and movements operating on the left of the poltical spectrum. This includes social democratic parties, communist parties, trade union movements, new social movements, and protest groups, including the 'anti-globalization movement' and recent ‘anti-austerity’ protests. It covers both the theoretical developments of such parties and movements, and their political activities in practice. It aims to provide a broad historical overview of the development of potential agents of social and political change. In doing so, moreover, it places contemporary left-wing political parties and protest movements within their historical context, thereby enabling a critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of such forms of political activity.